Michelle Schwab, 38, of Delaware, Ohio, faces a charge of child endangering in the case.
Court documents allege that Schwab held the boy out over the protective barrier. He then fell into the enclosure and suffered a broken leg.
Cleveland EMS said the boy fell between 10 to 12 feet into the exhibit before being removed and taken to the hospital.
The zoo said the cheetahs never made an attempt to interact with the boy. Schwab is set to appear in court April 22.